Advanced PrototypingOrganization logo: Delft University of Technology

About this minor

How would you go about designing and prototyping a personally fitting bicycle helmet? And how can you use virtual and augmented reality technology in prototyping, or prototype an augmented reality experience?

In the Advanced Prototyping Minor, you will design and build functional, low- and high-fidelity prototypes, harnessing the unique capabilities of digital fabrication and virtual and augmented reality technologies. The goal of the course is to equip students with a broad range of advanced prototyping skills and in-depth knowledge of current state-of-the-art techniques to create prototypes that capture both the function and appearance of the intended design.

The minor consists of two courses (pending approval of course revision):

  • Prototyping with/for Digital Fabrication (Q1, 15EC, individual project)

  • Advanced Prototyping Project (Q2, 15 EC, group project)

The PDF course introduces you to theories, methods, and techniques on digitization, design automation, and digital fabrication. Learning activities include lectures and workshops on 3D scanning, 3D modeling and parametric design tools (using Rhino Grasshopper), generative design (e.g., topology optimization), and digital fabrication technologies such as 3D printing, laser cutting, and CNC milling. You will apply the knowledge and skills on these topics in an individual prototyping assignment, related to developing a ""personalized fit"" product.

Moreover, we will introduce to you the use of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technology, using this in the prototyping process, as well as providing you with an introduction to VR/AR development, for mixed reality applications (module on VR/AR development, pending approval for course revision).

In Q2, the acquired knowledge and skills of PDF will be deepened in the Advanced Prototyping Project (APP). In this group project, you build (multiple) prototype(s), using an iterative design approach. You test and evaluate your prototypes, and eventually exhibit both the results of your prototyping process and your final prototype(s) in a public location. The course allows you to choose a project from a wide range of ""real-world"" cases (with a real customer), related to digital fabrication and/or virtual/augmented reality technology. In the APP course you will also gain experience, through hand-on workshops, with various relevant design methods and transferable skills, such as 'user observation', 'interview techniques', 'material testing', 'product photography', 'video making', and 'pitching'.

Learning outcomes

Prototyping with/for Digital Fabrication
After completing this course you should be able to:

  • Implement different 3D scanning technologies regarding both human & existing designs to create a (new) design

  • Combine complex 3D modeling with design optimization tools (using Rhino Grasshopper)

  • Apply generative design tools to design a functional shape (e.g. topology optimization)

  • Reason which digital manufacturing technologies (like (multi-material) 3D printing, laser cutting, CNC milling, etc.) is suitable for a prototype and apply it to fabricate a design

  • Create a design optimized for a specific digital fabrication technology

  • Explain the role of a (human/product) digital twin in design with regards to advanced prototyping

Advanced Prototyping Project
After completing this course you should be able to:

  • Apply theory & basic skills of prototyping to the design and fabrication of (a) prototype(s)
  • Select and apply digital-fabrication (and VR/AR technology) related knowledge and skills within the design of a prototype
  • Build the series of prototypes, based on an iterative design approach, harnessing the benefits of digital fabrication (and VR/AR technology)
  • Evaluate the quality (technical, usability, experience) of the prototype with regards to its ability to verify the design intent (for example adaptive, responsive and ultra-personalized)
  • Present process and outcomes of a prototyping process to peers and non-colleagues in a using compelling storytelling
  • Reflect on the role of prototyping in a research and development context and make recommendations for further steps
  • Reflect upon your role in a multi-disciplinary team

Teaching method and examination

We offer instructions through lectures, workshops, and tutorials. You will apply knowledge and skills in 1 individual (Q1) and 1 group project (Q2), where you will receive project-focused coaching.

Number of contact hours: Q1: 24 hours (average), Q2: 10 hours.
Mode of teaching:

  • Q1: Lectures (10 hours), workshops/practicals (14 hours), project work/self-study (16 hours)

  • Q2: Workshops (8 hours), coaching (3 hours), project work/self-study (29 hours)

Note: This minor is a full-time program, and the experience of students from previous years shows that it also requires a full-time time commitment.

Check the detailed overview of courses, learning activities and study load at

Good to know

The minor has a maximum capacity of 45 students. Students are selected through a random draw, but with the following division:

  • 1/2 students from Industrial Design Engineering
  • 1/2 from other bachelor programs.

No additional information needs to be submitted for the selection procedure.

Student at Leiden University, TU Delft or Erasmus University Rotterdam?
Check the eligibility matrix to see if your bachelor’s degree programme offers access to this and other minors at

Student at another educational institution?
External students cannot register via EduXchange. Interested in this minor, read the whole registration procedure at

For information about the courses, visit the TU Delft study guide.
For additional information on this minor, visit the TU Delft minor page.

Additional information

  • Code
  • Theme
  • Credits
    ECTS 30
  • Selection minor
If anything remains unclear, please check the FAQ of TU Delft.
There are currently no offerings available for students of TU Delft